As the Global Food Security Index 2015 was published, we can see that food security has got a dramatically increasing improvement over the past year. From this annual report, an outcome can be recognized that there was a 4.4% decrease of people who were chronically malnutrition between 2013 and 2014. Food security is being developed as a global crucial enterprise by the whole world. Then, what is food security? As for public, understanding the field and context of food security is a problem at present; food bank is not its all possessions. Based on the development of food science engineering, food sovereignty and food justice play crucial roles for food security.
Back to history, the appearance of word ‘food security’ originated in 1970s. Because of the new field of research, that initial focus was elementarily on food supply problems. In 1974, World Food Conference was set up with a process of international negotiation. That is regarded as a standard organization for solving global food problems and the start of global food research. After a rapid development over several decades, The State of Food Insecurity 2001 refined the definition that “Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. This more specific definition recognizes us that food security is not equal to food safety; the achievement of biological chemistry engineering is only the improvement of neutral science. For solving the social problems such as poverty and inequality, the appearance of food sovereignty and food justice is obviously influential.
From Windfuhr’s research, food sovereignty has been used dramatically since the mid-1990s. It pays more attention on hunger and undernourished, as well as international organizations like World Trade Organization, World Bank and International Monetary. The significance of food sovereignty is reducing rural poverty and hunger according to national policies and legal standards. That can be analyzed from specific context. In detail, food sovereignty works for dismantling corporate agrifoods monopoly power; community rights to water and seed; sustainable livelihoods; protection from overproduction; regulated markets and supply, etc. As for food justice, it focuses attention on underserved communities struggle against structural racism in the food system, and devotes itself to agro ecologically produced local food, community benefit packages for production and new business models. Besides, from Eric’s project, there are several differences between food sovereignty and food justice from main institutions to the approaches for food crisis. First, food justice agenda concentrates on race, gender and economic status according to call for access to healthy food by marginalized groups. As for changing the situation of food crisis, food justice focuses on better safety nets, locally sourced food and right to food. On the other hand, expect sustainably produced, food sovereignty prefers to culturally appropriate and UN/FAO negotiations.
Since October 2012, Global Food Security Index tried to adjust policies for the impact of fluctuating food prices. This food price adjustment factor was based on changes in income growth and global or domestic food prices. The measure can be regarded as an effective approach for improving food poverty and food waste. Obviously, it makes people pay more attention on starvation and do not ignore the value of food any more. For the country-specific adjustments, their goal of translating fluctuations in global food prices to the national level will result in different levels of scores changes for each country, with vulnerable countries hurt the most by rising prices. Debate of food sovereignty policies is spreading beyond those organizations and movements such as NGOs and CSOs. Then, intergovernmental organizations like the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have started to investigate the content and scope of the Food Sovereignty policy framework and the first academic articles are now being published. From Windfuhr’s study, “hunger is and issue of access to food, to and adequate income, or to productive resources that allow poor people to either produce or buy enough food”. Face to global environment, hunger is mainly affected by social issues. Hence, the main causes of hunger and malnutrition are inequitable distribution of food, land, and other productive resources. According to the Millennium Project, approximately 60 million people are influenced by civil strife and insecure political conditions, including other complex political situations. Besides, environmental factor plays a crucial role for exist of hunger and malnutrition, such as drought and unreliable rain or storms.
The year 2015 marks the end of the monitoring period for the Millennium Development Goal targets. From the report of The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015, Latin America, the east and southeastern regions of Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia, and the northern and western regions of Africa have made fast progress. These regions have got significant improvements in decreasing the undernourished people. There is no doubt that social protection directly contributes to the diminution of poverty, hunger and malnutrition by promoting income standard and reach to better nutrition and health care. On the other hand, for individuals, economic growth is a crucial impact for improving quality of life and nutritional intake. More healthy and organic food can be promoted and recognized by public; people may focus more attention on eating and cooking.
The current relevance of food sovereignty is mainly about the challenge for international policy, such as the changes in some multi-lateral aid policies of OECD countries. For changing the negative issue, some questions need to be debated by researchers and professors: How do we motivate more political will to address the root causes of hunger and poverty; whether we can set up policy conditions to develop a substantial reduction in the number of hungry and malnourished people. As for food justice, it raises new problems when providing networks movements for urban and rural communities: How do we involve the social construction of places for food production; and how do food justice movements operate simultaneously on place-based projects, relate to policy and at the national and international scales. Absolutely, it is a long-term plan to achieve the dramatically development of food sovereignty and food justice in current social status.