The food system can simply be defined as “a series of activities and interactions that determine what, how, and by whom and how food and food are produced and distributed” (Nestle & McIntosh, 2010).
Firstly, food security can be described as a condition that relates to the social and economic access of people to adequate and nutritious food which fulfill the dietary requirement and consumer preference of an individual. The absence of such foods often causes nutritional deficiencies and irregular health problems. Secondly, food sovereignty is expressed as the right of the people to nutritious and culturally suitable food that is produced without ecological hazard and through the implementation of sound methods. Food sovereignty further secures the right of the individual to express their own food and agricultural systems.
Various Factors and their response to food security and food sovereignty
Firstly, the neoliberal trade system or the monopoly of agricultural enterprises, has escalated the recent emergence of small and medium-scale production, which ultimately leads to an overproduction of undesired food. For instance, the surge of commercial farming has resulted in overproduction of processed food which has been relatively less beneficial for health. However, there is a considerable debate that population growth is responsible for implying agricultural technologies to induce food production. On the other hand, subsistence farming yields a lower output which is insufficient to satisfy the demand growing food market. Furthermore, there are concerns that vested interest in farming industries and food processing agencies have adulterated the nutritional composition of food. Secondly, people have discovered and acknowledged the benefits of organic food over inorganic food. Organic food standards do not allow the extensive use of technology and chemicals to enhance food production hence cannot ensure adequate production. Furthermore, organic foods are relatively costlier and most of the families cannot such foods regularly). Moreover, it is often argued that urban food is convenience based making them calorie rich and low-nutritional.
There are multiple and overlapping gaps caused by a variety of issues. For example, geographical factors have led to differences in the agricultural production and livestock husbandry development in various continents. For instance, the North American food system is considered one of the least nurturing system throughout the world. Although food is relatively good throughout North America, it is often produced through environmental repression, degradation, and even exploitation. Here, domestication of plants and animals has increased population density, thus changing the form of social organization, promoting the development of ideas along with technology and innovation (source). This has also attracted foreign and interracial populations, and on the other hand, influenced the ethnic exchanges by affecting the invention and proliferation of and even the adaptation varieties of animals and plants. Furthermore, ethnic or gender differences in classes are deprived of all kinds of food because of local politics and economy. For instance, more than twice as many black overweight young people in the United States as white youth. This warns people about inequalities in social structure and the separation of healthy foods. Food security is premised on the commercialization of food capitalism and involves a single goal to meet the overall food needs. First, moving from short-term emergency food supplies to guaranteed livelihoods as a necessary condition for food security. Second, a more scientific approach to changing from traditional perceptions of calorie community measures or people’s anxiety about food insecurity to the food security associated with existing food quality in difficult to be justified. It will involve satisfying the basic needs of humankind, being free from exploitation and oppression, and getting the chance to participate.
As we know, there are always food emergencies in the world, such as war, natural disasters, and incurable disease outbreaks, all of which have corresponding solutions. However, the problem becomes serious if hunger and malnutrition occur alongside. Although food security may presuppose multiple commodity system one does not know which production system will guarantee the correct standard and quantity of food. Food consumption cannot be controlled since it directly leads to deprivation of human needs and desires. Hence it is suggested that all foodstuff production will lead to food insecurity since it is responsible for the expansion of market and enterprises which together led to a corresponding shift between producer and consumer loss of power（source）.
As a result, many political activists call for food justice and call for addressing the issue of multiple and overlapping gaps. It is put into consideration that the national food security should be closely linked with the sovereignty of food and strive for the formation and realization of food justice. Hence, the substantive fulfillment of food sovereignty is an answer to this question. Furthermore, the model of food sovereignty eliminates the company’s monopoly power in the food system and redistributes land, water, seeds and sources of production. Food sovereignty advocates environmentally friendly farming practices and well-staffed employees. Just as the promotion of food sovereignty is implicit in the growth of food security which ensures access to culturally acceptable and adequate nutritious food for all through non-urgent local conditions（source）.
A good example of the close combination of food security and food sovereignty comes from One World Everybody Eats Café in Salt Lake City, Utah. Small cafes only launch seasonal local organic food for employees to raise living wages, and a reward system, that is, according to the length of work can be rewarded restaurant coupons. Customers and employees can minimize food waste based on how much food they want and how much self-service they can afford. From the fact that we can resist unfair practices, farmer’s markets and other initiatives can reduce the purchasing power of food and its impact on the environment. We can support the redistribution of global consumption through changes in consumer attitudes and political campaigns and local hunger. Although food can now be considered in many ways, if we can better support national food security and food sovereignty and agriculture, we may be able to better solve the problems of the entire city and even of equality and justice（source）.