With the improvement of people’s living standards, genetically modified food with its excellent quality into people’s lives gradually. Compare with traditional biotechnology, genetically modified biotechnology in a complete revolution and bring enormous benefits, while mankind will inevitably have to face the threat of this technology and the potential risks. So, how to establish a safe legal system for the development of genetically modified food is very important.
- Definition of genetically modified foods.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. This technique is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also referred to as “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows the transfer of selected individual genes from one organism to another organism, as well as between non-related species. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.
Although there are many controversial in genetically modified foods, it is still rapid development. With the progress of technology, genetically modified food has been involved in plants, animals and microorganisms and other fields.
Most of the plants are obtained biological genetic characteristics through the pollination. No matter how the evolution of plants, with the gene is still the plant gene, and cannot be mutated into animal genes. Genetically modified may be derived from a different plant, or even from a completely different species. Compare with the animals or human genetic engineering, plant genetic engineering will not be encounter social, ethical, moral and other issues. Therefore, to obtain genetically modified foods easier than to obtain genetically modified animals.
Compared with genetically modified plants, genetically modified animal technology is much more difficult. Genetically modified has been the advent of animal products is: genetically modified pigs, genetically modified sheep, genetically modified fish, genetically engineered cows.
Genetically modified products are: genetically modified yeast and enzymes, improved beneficial microorganisms. Genetically modified microorganisms are relatively easy to cultivate and are the most widely used.
- Safety of genetically modified
Genetically modified foods, whether there are security risks or the impact on human health, there are two main points of view.
- In favor of genetically modified foods exist in the development point of view.
First, varieties can be improved. Second, it can extend the food storage time and increase the nutritional content. Third, by adding resistance genes to crops, the crop itself has the ability to resist pests and diseases. Which can reduce the use of pesticides, is conducive to environmental protection. Fourth, genetically modified technology and genetically modified foods are currently expanding in areas such as medicine. Fifth, the prospects for the development of genetically modified technology have many benefits to mankind, especially in addressing the food crisis.
- Against genetically modified foods exist in the development point of view.
Genetically modified food affect human health and the environment may have on mainly: Firstly, humans being, animals, the spread of genetically modified plants by infection disease across species. Secondly, the allergic reactions of genetically modified organisms can affect human health. Thirdly, loss the biological diversity of crop. Fourth, there are some unnecessary environmental impacts.
- The development of genetically modified food in China
China’s genetically modified technology started earlier. In 1997, China first cultivated genetically modified frozen tomatoes. China’s genetically modified research institutions have also formed a system. China has imported a lot of genetically modified food so far. After 2002, China’s imports of genetically modified soybeans far more than the number of domestic soybean. In fact, people may unknowingly purchase genetically modified food. With China’s accession to the WTO and the arrival of global integration, consumption of genetically modified foods will be more and more.
The relevant laws and regulations on genetically modified food provide the corresponding legal basis for biosafety management in China. But compared with the development level of biotechnology in China, laws and regulations cannot meet the needs of biosafety management. Its main manifestations are: (1) Lack of biosafety legislation of specialized comprehensive. (2) Lack of sound regulatory framework. (3) Lack of unified supervision and management institutions and management procedures. (4) Lack of a sound management system. (5) Legislation is not mature enough.
- Suggestions on China ‘s genetically modified legislation.
(1). The necessary for the development of a GMO safety law. The development of gene technology urgent need for the relevant laws and regulations norms and constraints. Any science and technology has advantages and disadvantages. It can promote economic prosperity, can cause environmental pollution, ecological imbalance, leading to a catastrophe as well as.
(2). To develop procedures for the safety testing of genetically modified foods and management of genetically modified foods. Regulate the production and sale of genetically modified foods.
(3). The establishment of an effective management system and management institutions.
(4). The introduction of risk assessment, which it enables to maximize the prevention of genetically modified foods on the adverse effects of human or the environment.
(5). The implementation of mandatory labeling of genetically modified food. The implementation of label system, in fact, the protection of consumer rights, while also safeguarding the rights of consumers.
(6). The development of the provisions on compensation. The research, production and use of genetically modified foods may have certain risks. If the harm caused, it is bound to involve the issue of compensation.
How to treat genetically modified foods properly, while enjoying the enormous benefits brought by the genetically modified food hazards to a minimum, while dealing with genetically modified foods in the relevant trade caused a series of problems, this is a continuous exploration process. Only to establish a sound legal system, in order to make people’s lives be guaranteed.